The IELTS Academic Reading: Cambridge Reading Sample; ‘The Story of Coffee’ with answers. The reading passage on The Story of Coffee has 7 paragraphs A – G. From the list of headings below choose the most suitable headings for paragraphs B – G. Write the appropriate number (i – xi) in boxes 28 – 33 on your answer sheet. This long chain of production has major social and political effects. Enter your email address to subscribe to this website and receive notifications of new posts by email. This is done more than once to release a rich and less-diluted brew into the water reservoir. NB There are more headings than paragraphs, so you will not use them all. Fungicide applications are now part of the routine production practices on coffee plantations, despite the expense for small growers. Danh sách TNV nhóm dịch thuật. Coffee is the second most heavily traded product in the world after oil. Why do the British drink so much tea? Despite Ward’s warning, when the coffee trees were replaced with tea bushes, they were planted at the same density. Coffee growers, in their desperation to find quick fixes to get rid of pests like the rust, have come to rely on pesticides and genetically modified plants. Good cultural management, taking into account the density of planting and the climate, is also paramount. The Presto 02822 6-Cup Stainless-Steel Coffee Percolator is a classically designed coffee brewer with the capacity to produce 2-6 cups of flavourful coffee. This is mainly because coffee reading is a type of fortune telling and can be interpreted in various ways. Coffee rust, la roya in Spanish, showed up for the first time in Central America in the 1970s. After reading, use the passage to help you find the answers to aligned questions. C. This dangerous distraction contributes largely to motor vehicle accidents and the statistics are Increasing daily as we continue to take our eyes off the road to call or even more dangerously text. However, for more background research, check out the following links (all information on this site comes from one of the following articles): This'll also install Cargo, Rust's package/project manager. Its ideal temperature is between 15 and 30°C/59 to 86°F and humidity triggers germination. Dispersal over wider areas is primarily by wind, although insects such as flies and wasps may also play a small part. Start studying Personal Fitness Quiz Review. Coffee Prices, Rust Getting On Plants Do you like to drink coffee in the mornings while reading the newspaper or any other paper articles? Back then, most coffee came from the country we now know as Yemen. Coffee rust was successfully excluded from the Americas for over 100 years by careful quarantine measures. Good cultural management, taking into account the density of planting and the climate, is also paramount. Though coffee leaf rust came to widespread public attention during the Latin American/Carribean epidemic of 2012-13, it has long been an enemy of coffee farmers. Join 2,428 other subscribers . How Coffee Leaf Rust Spreads. The answer to this question can be traced back, unexpectedly, to a humble fungus, The rust fungus is dispersed by both wind and rain. Infected trees were isolated by creating an 80 km coffeeless ‘safety zone’ around the infected area, but within eighteen months the rust had jumped the gap in the direction of the prevailing winds. The appearance of this disease was first reported in the British colony of Ceylon (now Sri Lanka) in 1867. He shrugged again, as though the answer ought to be obvious. Today, the fungus has spread throughout all the. The reading passage on The Story of Coffee has 7 paragraphs A – G. From the list of headings below choose the most suitable headings for paragraphs B – G. Write the appropriate number (i – xi) in boxes 28 – 33 on your answer sheet. But rising global temperatures and fluctuations in rainfall have put productivity levels in peril in recent years. IELTS, Cambridge Exams: Speaking (Science and Technology). Why do the British drink so much tea? The chanccs arc that you have already drunk a cup or glass of tea today, Perhaps, you arc sipping one as you read this. Have you had a cup of coffee today? we all are, heres your chance to get easy 100's on every single story. January is usually a busy time in El Sontule, the small coffee-growing community where married couple Pérez and Villarreyna live with their youngest son Wilder and two nephews, Jeyson and Freyder. The continuous planting of coffee trees over the island, without even the benefit of windbreaks, had created a perfect environment for a fungus epidemic to spread. Hướng dẫn cách update phần giải thích chi tiết lên IOT. masses of orange urediniospores (= uredospores) appear on the undersurfaces (Figure 4 How the fungus first made its way from its native Ethiopia to Ceylon is unknown, but human intervention seems to be the only plausible explanation. This means the fungus takes its energy and nutrients from a live host, which in this case is a coffee plant. The long-term answer is to replant with fungus-resistant varieties as Colombia has done, says Mauricio Galindo, head of operations at the ICO. “When the coffee rust fungus, Hemileia vastatrix, reached Ceylon in 1875, nearly 400,000 acres of the island were covered with… This defoliation causes shoots and roots to starve and consequently to die back, reducing the number of nodes on which coffee can be produced the following season. Coffee trees are native to eastern Africa and areas of the Arabian Peninsula. Unfortunately in the case of the Ceylon plantations, the rust epidemic was too well-established for this protective measure to save the coffee trees. However, in 1970, the fungus was discovered in Brazil, again probably brought in accidentally by humans. Create a free website or blog at WordPress.com. Email Address . In 2012, coffee-leaf rust decimated coffee farms across Latin America. Infected trees were isolated by creating an 80 km coffeeless ‘safety zone’ around the infected area, but within eighteen months the rust had jumped the gap in the direction of the prevailing winds. With the destruction of the coffee plantations in Ceylon and subsequent arrival of coffee rust in Java and Sumatra, the world’s coffee production shifted to the Americas. The rust pustules are powdery and orange-yellow on the underleaf surface. If yes was your answer or if it wasn't and someone you are living with drinks coffee. Subscribe to our website via Email. How the fungus first made its way from its native Ethiopia to Ceylon is unknown, but human intervention seems to be the only plausible explanation. Despite Ward’s warning, when the coffee trees were replaced with tea bushes, they were planted at the same density. “Shade coffee resisted rust more effectively than sun-grown coffee.” “Now is the time to renovate.” — Jacques Avelino, Coffee Rust Pathologist, CIRAD-CATIE “Many people said there was not enough warning. Unless a truly rust-. Coffee rust was successfully excluded from the Americas for over 100 years by careful quarantine measures. Back in my country many people did this. Fungicide applications are now part of the routine production practices on coffee plantations, despite the expense for small growers. By observing the patterns of infection on individual leaves, it can be deduced that splashing rain is the most important means of local, or short-range dispersal. Dispersal over wider areas is primarily by wind, although, insects such as flies and wasps may also play a small part. Occasionally green shoots and even the green coffee berries can be infected. One study says it’s really bad for us and the next report says it’s good for us. By the 1870s, Ceylon was exporting nearly 100 million pounds of coffee a year, much of it to England. Оставляя заявку, вы подтверждаете свое согласие с Договором-офертой и Политикой конфиденциальности. Coffea Arabica, the species that produces the best coffee, is the most susceptible of the coffee plants to coffee leaf rust. Ex-perts attribute that attack to the phenomenon called La Nina, which caused a 44 percent increase in rainfall one year, decreasing daylight hours by 22 per-cent and average temperatures by 1 degree. Coffee Leaf Rust emerged again in the Americas in 2008 through 2011. Today, the fungus has spread throughout all the coffee-growing areas, including Colombia and the countries of Central America. He also pointed out the risks of intensive monoculture. Danh sách các bài reading IELTS cần dịch. There have been articles in the news about coffee rust affecting coffee crops in many places. Photo courtesy of Tim Willems and World Coffee Research. Unfortunately in the case of the Ceylon plantations, the rust epidemic was too well-established for this protective measure to save the coffee trees. The dust looks like rust on a piece of steel, and that is how it got its name: The plants are infected with coffee-leaf rust, a devastating fungus. The correct answer is A. I must have a coffee first thing in the morning. However, in 1970, the fungus was discovered in Brazil, again probably brought in accidentally by humans. Answers Mathematics, 20.12.2020 06:10 What is the Cost of Goods if manufacturing costs equal $50 each, packaging equals $1.00 each, delivery equals $2.00 each, and advertising equals $1,000? ... Tarot - New Love Tarot reading for newly established relationships. The coffee growers probably hoped at first that the disease would disappear as quickly and unaccountably as it had begun. Hemileia vastatrix is a fungus of the order Pucciniales (previously also known as Uredinales) that causes coffee leaf rust, a disease that is devastating to susceptible coffee plantations.Coffee serves as the obligate host of coffee rust, that is, the rust must have access to and come into physical contact with coffee (Coffea sp.) You will need to have Rust installed. Over the next twenty years, coffee production in Asia and Africa was virtually wiped out. In the mid 1800’s coffee leaf rust obliterated the coffee industry in Sri Lanka (Ceylon) and changed its agriculture completely (it is now the fourth largest producer of tea). Answers. When the coffee rust fungus destroyed Ceylon's coffee trees in 1875, the plantations began growing tea. Following a period of severe economic and social upheaval, planters in British colonies shifted to planting tea, and the British were gradually transformed into a nation of tea drinkers. Even the people that I would have never expected. ( Log Out /  For example, some coffee producers and drinkers are concerned about the Fair Trade movement. It was a fungus called coffee leaf rust. coffee-growing areas, including Colombia and the countries of Central America. ( Log Out /  TEA TIMES A. They’d drink the coffee then flip the cup upside down. Tea, now nn everyday beverage in many parts of the world, has over the centuries been an important part of rituals of hospitality both in the home and … Time for a quick biology lesson. resistant variety with more desirable genetic traits can be produced, coffee rust will have to be managed as a continuous epidemic on a perennial crop. You have to ask a question you do not know about, or a question that results in the same advantage or disadvantage for you. Whether you enjoy a latte, a cappuccino, or simply black coffee, these funny coffee quotes and sayings will have you nodding your head and will tempt you to reach for another cup. Thought to have evolved alongside coffee in Ethiopia, leaf rust was first reported in 1861 near Lake Victoria in East Africa, and coffee farmers have been battling it ever since. Get all of Hollywood.com's best Movies lists, news, and more. For many farmers, it caused the loss not just one crop cycle but two or more: Meaning no income for multiple years in a row for an already vulnerable population of smallholders. This month, WCR announced that many varieties’ resistance is breaking down. Dự án giải thich chi tiết các bài reading IELTS. Nội quy khi tham gia giải thích chi tiết 1 bài reading IELTS. The answer to this question can be traced back, unexpectedly, to a humble fungus, HEMILEIA vastatrix, which attacks the leaves of coffee plants causing a disease popularly known as coffee rust. Once the barrier of the oceans had been breached, wind, dispersal came into play. Ward recommended that to effectively protect the plant from invasion, the leaves should be treated with a coating of fungicide (lime-sulphur). You should spend about 20 minutes on Questions 1-14, which are based on Reading Passage 1 below. Tag: ielts reading the story of coffee answers ... Reading practice test 11 THE STORY OF COFFEE ielts reading sample. The answer to this question can be traced back, unexpectedly, to a humble fungus, HEMILEIA vastatrix, which attacks the leaves of coffee plants causing a disease popularly known as coffee rust. ( Log Out /  Change ), You are commenting using your Google account. Before long, coffee was in high demand all over the Middle East. Unless a truly rust-resistant variety with more desirable genetic traits can be produced, coffee rust will have to be managed as a continuous epidemic on a perennial crop. STRUGGLING WITH READING PLUS? In 2013, an outbreak of coffee leaf rust across Central America precipitated losses of between 11% (Nicaragua) and 70% (El Salvador) of export volumes, and in some regions coffee production has still not recovered – nor have the communities of farmers and farmworkers recovered the economic or social safety nets required to insulate them against price shocks. It started in 2010.” “All non-resistant varieties were affected, including Catimor. It. Coffee rust is a current problem, so if you’re interested in helping or learning more, make sure you’re keeping up with the news! Generally, Arabica coffee plants are more susceptible to this fungus, however, Robusta plants can also be affected by it. You can get it by visiting https://rustup.rs. Insects as carriers can be ruled out, and it is doubtful whether the, Ward recommended that to effectively protect the plant from invasion, the leaves should be treated with a coating of fungicide (lime-sulphur). IELTS practice reading test 8 with answers. The rust organism can be recognized by the presence of yellowish powdery lesions on the undersides of the leaves of the coffee plant.  However, for more background research, check out the following links (all information on this site comes from one of the following articles): http://www.ticotimes.net/2014/05/19/usaid-to-invest-5-million-to-combat-coffee-fungus-epidemic-in-central-america, http://www.apsnet.org/edcenter/intropp/lessons/fungi/Basidiomycetes/Pages/CoffeeRust.aspx, http://rt.com/usa/160016-coffee-rust-fungus-raises-prices/, http://www.scaa.org/chronicle/2013/02/15/some-insights-on-coffee-leaf-rust-hemileia-vastatrix/, http://www.bbc.com/news/blogs-magazine-monitor-27474621, http://www.ibtimes.com/coffee-rust-has-claimed-1b-losses-250000-jobs-central-america-us-fears-increase-migration-1588078, http://www.usaid.gov/news-information/press-releases/may-19-2014-usaid-texas-am-invest-5-million-combat-coffee-rust-crisis. Coffee leaf rust thrives in the same conditions as many coffee varieties. By 1879, however, it was clear that it was not going away, and the Ceylon government made an appeal for someone to be sent to help. NB There are more headings … Note: If you're on MacOS, make sure you've installed Xcode and its developer tools by typing xcode-select --install. Change ). Coffee leaves with the small yellow spots that indicate an early infection of coffee leaf rust. By observing the patterns of infection on individual leaves, it can be deduced that splashing rain is the most important means of local, or short-range dispersal. This empire, however, was swiftly devastated by the arrival of the coffee rust fungus. I … Keep reading what I The symptoms of coffee rust include small, yellowish, oily spots on the upper leaf surface that expand into larger round spots that turn bright orange to red and finally brown with a yellow border. When a plant is badly affected, the infected leaves drop to the ground, and short-circuit the plant’s ability to generate energy and thus yield a crop. Scientists and doctors can’t make their minds up about coffee. ( Log Out /  It was only by good fortune that no similar fungus arrived to invade the tea bushes and that improved fungicides were soon available to protect the crop. Rust-resistant strains of coffee have also been developed but the crop is of poorer quality. i Growing Coffee Other resources to use with this Black Coffee – Reading Comprehension Worksheet As your students are reading, it’s possible that they may need to use graphic organizers to help them summarize the events of the story. The appearance of this disease was first reported … “It’s due to climate change.” T he pandemic of coffee rust is like the unfolding pandemic of the coronavirus in so many ways. The opening paragraph and closing line both stress the same point which is about the popularity of coffee. After reading a passage, choose the best answer to each question and fill in the corresponding oval on your answer document. The average U.S. adult drinks about two 8-ounce (240-milliliter) cups of coffee a day, which can contain around 280 milligrams of caffeine. The continuous planting of coffee trees over the island, without even the benefit of windbreaks, had created a perfect environment for a fungus epidemic to spread. I’ve posted the answer below. It works by circulating steam through the coffee beans, soaking them and releasing fresh, rich content. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. was only by good fortune that no similar fungus arrived to invade the tea bushes and that improved fungicides were soon available to protect the crop. I like a cup of coffee at certain times of the day. By the seventeenth century coffee had been introduced to Europe. A coffee bean goes from a series of producers, exporters, importers, roasters and sellers. Rust-resistant strains of coffee have also been developed but the crop is of poorer quality. The infected leaves drop prematurely, leaving long expanses of bare twigs. Change ), You are commenting using your Facebook account. in order to survive. While reading Turkish coffee grounds are one of the most popular forms of coffee reading and is still practiced today in the Middle East, United States, and parts of Europe, is it hard to say where the best coffee reading in the world is. Coffee leaf rust; or Hemileia vastatrix to give it its botanical name, is a type of parasitic fungus. Crystal ball will answer any question that awaits a clear answer (Yes / No). Small-scale farmers and tostadores like Moises primarily produce Arabica coffee, a variety that is particularly well-suited to the high altitudes of the Sierra. You may refer to the passages as often as necessary. Plantations were swiftly established in the tropical highlands of Brazil, Colombia, and Central America, and Brazil soon became the world’s major coffee supplier, closely followed by Colombia. The rust fungus is dispersed by both wind and rain. Coffee was first grown and traded in the 15th century. I’ve even read that 10 cups a day is good for our brain. The post will discuss the answers to questions 28-40. But this epidemic, which began in late 2012, is by far the worst the region has seen. Change ), You are commenting using your Twitter account. SOCIAL SCIENCE: This passage is adapted from the article “From Kiva Han to Caribou Coffee” by Alan C. Thorwald in the collection A Social History of Joe (? With the destruction of the coffee plantations in Ceylon and subsequent arrival of coffee rust in Java and Sumatra, the world’s coffee production shifted to the Americas. For most young, healthy adults, caffeine doesn't appear to noticeably affect blood sugar (glucose) levels, and having up to 400 milligrams a day appears to be safe. If you have not completed this reading lesson, please do so before looking at the answers. There was some warning. The organisms within the fungal life cycle asexually produce thousands of tiny s… Once the barrier of the oceans had been breached, wind dispersal came into play. In response, farmers were urged to plant hybrid varieties that were rust-resistant. Insects as carriers can be ruled out, and it is doubtful whether the fungus could have been blown so far. In England in the early and mid-1800s, the most popular drink was coffee from plantations in Ceylon (Sri Lanka). The British Government responded by sending Harry Marshall Ward, whose brief was to investigate the coffee rust phenomenon and hopefully come up with a cure. Click here to complete the lesson: IELTS Reading Choose a Title . Historically, coffee leaf rust has had a devastating impact on coffee. Coffee rust is a current problem, so if you're interested in helping or learning more, make sure you're keeping up with the news! Credit: Ivan Petrich. Gabriel recognized the problem as soon as he saw it. Get e-books with questions from actual IELTS tests along with suggested answers to acquire a good band score! He also pointed out the risks of intensive monoculture. Under British rule, the island of Ceylon was stripped of its forests to turn over every available acre to coffee production. Plantations were swiftly established in the tropical highlands of Brazil, Colombia, and Central America, and Brazil soon became the world’s major coffee supplier, closely followed by Colombia. Later the pustules turn black. Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. 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